Posts Tagged ‘history of technology’
Everyone knows the old saw that “no technology exists in a vacuum.” Less clear to our linear-narrative-obsessed culture is the fact that no technology was invented in one, either. The strands that connect the dots of a technology’s path from invention to deployment to adoption criss and cross much more than we give them credit for, even in TED Talks. History Mesh is an interactive timeline tracing the interconnected history of four technology megatrends over the past four millennia, using the London Tube Map as graphic inspiration. Think the history of computation started in the 1950s and has nothing to do with “water puppet theater” in the third century B.C.E.? Think again…
As we appreciate the shoulders of those on whom we stand, we might send paradigm-shaping birthday greetings to Rosalind Franklin; she was born on this date in 1920. A biophysicist and X-ray crystallographer, Franklin captured the X-ray diffraction images of DNA that were, in the words of Francis Crick, “the data we actually used” when he and James Watson developed their “double helix” hypothesis for the structure of DNA. Indeed, it was Franklin who argued to Crick and Watson that the backbones of the molecule had to be on the outside (something that neither they nor their competitor in the race to understand DNA, Linus Pauling, had understood). Franklin never received the recognition she deserved for her independent work– her paper was published in Nature after Crick and Watson’s, which barely mentioned her– and she died of cancer four years before Crick, Watson, and their lab director Maurice Wilkins won the Nobel Prize for the discovery.
Monte Patterson has done us the terrific service of creating The Final Image, a Tumblr that collects– yes!– the final images of films. And by way of context, he’s included an illustrative introduction…
… Let’s examine the mise-en-scène of Big (1988, dir. Penny Marshall). After experiencing the age of 30 for a week, Josh, back a boy again, walks up a road with his best friend, Billy, much like the beginning, except this time new meaning is attached. The road seems wide and endless as it inclines out of the top-right quadrant of the frame, symbolizing the big road ahead for the boy. After a Josh reverts to his child form and is reunited with his best friend Billy. From these details, we can compile a list of the formal elements that comprise the mise-en-scène of this final image.
Formal elements of the Big final image:
- composition: wide shot
- subject framing: lower center
- sets: residential street
- props: bicycle, baseball bat, skateboard
- actors: adolescent boys, one who has lived as a 30 y.o.
- performance: the boys sing and leisurely walk up the street
- costumes: kids clothing, shirts untucked
- lighting: daytime, sunny
- camera movement: fixed
- sound: diegetic ambient, non-expository dialogue, film score
This list is the formula for a satisfactory emotional outcome of this film. As Josh ascends the road, we are happy he has returned home, and are aware of the wisdom he’s gained from what he experienced as an adult.
More of the essay, and many more final images at The Final Image.
As we compose ourselves,we might recall that it was on this date in 1880 that Alexander Graham Bell transmitted the first wireless telephone message on his newly invented photophone from the top of the Franklin School in Washington, D.C. Bell believed that the photophone, a device allowed the transmission of sound on a beam of light, was his most important invention.
Bell’s photophone worked by projecting the voice through an instrument toward a mirror. Vibrations in the voice caused similar vibrations in the mirror. Bell directed sunlight into the mirror, which captured and projected the mirror’s vibrations. The vibrations were transformed back into sound at the receiving end of the projection… which is to say that the photophone functioned similarly to the telephone, except that the photophone used light as a means of projecting the information and the telephone relied on electricity.
It was many years before the significance of Bell’s work was fully recognized, as the original photophone failed to protect transmissions from outside interferences (such as clouds) that disrupted transport. Its practical application awaited the development of technology for the secure transport of light… which is to say that Bell’s photophone was the progenitor of modern fiber optics, the technology that is, with wireless, displacing Bell’s much more famous creation.
One of Bell’s drawing for the photophone (source)
- T.H. White
I love sports. Whenever I can, I always watch the Detroit Tigers on the radio.
- Gerald R. Ford
It’s not true I had nothing on, I had the radio on.
- Marilyn Monroe
As we settle into our Love Shacks for Valentine’s Day, we might recall that it was on this date in 1977 that the B-52′s played their first gig (in their hometown, Athens, GA). After their independently-produced “Rock Lobster” became a demi-hit, the band signed with Warner Bros., where their official bio read:
As a group we enjoy science facts, thrift shopping, tick jokes, fat fad diets, geometric exercising, and discovering the ‘essence from within.’” When taken together with the assertion that the band was “found in the Amazon River basin 40 years ago by Professor Agnes Potter and subsequently abandoned at Athens, Georgia.
Still together (though without Ricky Wilson, who died of AIDS in 1985), the B-52′s are widely credited with paving the way for what became “The Athens Scene”: a collection of local bands that, over the next several years, broke big (e.g., Love Tractor) and bigger (REM).
This was done simply to discover if I could do it. I went though a stage where my goal was to remove as much material from an egg shell as possible while still retaining the shape and image of the egg.
As we gratefully put away the Rit dye, we might recall that it was on this date in 1961 that Robert Noyce was awarded the patent for the integrated circuit that changed electronics. Readers may recall that Jack Kilby had (separately and independently) patented the integrated earlier than Noyce– and won a Nobel Prize for it. But Noyce’s design (rooted in silicon, as opposed to the germanium that Kilby used) was more practical… and paved the way for an altogether new kind of “Easter egg.”
Noyce made his breakthrough at Fairchild Semiconductor, of which he was a founding member. He went on to co-found Intel, then to serve as the unofficial “Mayor of Silicon Valley,” a mentor to scores to tech entrepreneurs– including Steve Jobs.
Noyce with a print of his integrated circuit (source: BBC)